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Help Needed..regarding Sales TAX
02-17-2005, 12:09 AM,
Help Needed..regarding Sales TAX
my name is junaid ur rehman, currently in the final semester BCS from SZABIST.
Our group is developing a software for CBR. It will automate the Process of Salex Tax Return.
It includes inventory managt.(through automated purachase/sales registers) and TAX calculation module(both purachse & sales)
It generates the standard sales tax return form at the end of each month.
Our software also includes a module for CBR AUDIT TEAM.
Now since we are CS students, so we are facing some problems.
We are now in requirement gathering Phase.
We need to know
1. Tax rates for ( registered / unregitered) traders
2. How Sales Tax returns are submitted to CBR
3. What basic things should be included regarding inventory managment

02-17-2005, 11:55 PM,
Since I am a Sales Tax Practitioner, so let me tell you that any software by govt is bound to fail because it does not offer any tool for tax planning, moreover it is very regid in calculations. That is where practitioners come in.
As regards rates I suggest keep this a variable because thay change rapidly. Few of the rates are as following
Unregistered nil
Registered 15% with value addition
Value Addition
Commercial Importers 10%
Retailers 16%
Retailers (tyres, electronics etctera) 3-4%
I know my posting will add to your confusion, but you have to have a accounatnt or a practitioner on your pannel for user end design/knowledge.

Aamer Sikandar

Aamer Sikandar
02-19-2005, 12:17 AM,
thnx for ur reply mr.aamer
yes..we have figure it out now that we do need some sort of SALES TAX ADVISOR or a tax consultant, to give us valuable knowledge.
we will implement the tax input module FLEXIBLE as well.
can you tell me about the VAT....
some people pay it on the PORT and some people dont...[?]
what is this for ??
02-19-2005, 12:41 AM,
<b>Definitions of vat </b>

A form of tax levied on goods and services supplied by VAT registered companies in the UK. The collection of VAT is administered by HM Customs and Excise. VAT registration is compulsory once a company's profits exceed the threshold of 58,000 (2003-2004). VAT is by and large calculated at 17.5% of sale value, although rates differ on selected products and services. A company may deduct VAT paid on expenses off the total VAT bill at the end of the year.

It is a general tax that applies, in principle, to all commercial activities involving the production and distribution of goods and the provision of services. It is a consumption tax because it is borne ultimately by the final consumer. It is not a charge on companies. It is charged as a percentage of price, which means that the actual tax burden is visible at each stage in the production and distribution chain. It is collected fractionally, via a system of deductions whereby taxable persons (i.e., VAT-registered businesses) can deduct from their VAT liability the amount of tax they have paid to other taxable persons on purchases for their business activities. This mechanism ensures that the tax is neutral regardless of how many transactions are involved.


All traders must register for VAT if they make taxable supplies which exceed the set limits.
Where the value of taxable supplies in the previous 12 months was more than £58,000 (£56,000 before 1 April 2004), or is likely to exceed this annual limit within the next 30 days, the trader has to register within 30 days. Failure to notify on time attracts penalties.

<b>The VAT system</b>

A registered trader must charge customers output VAT on any sales. The value of input VAT can be offset against output VAT and the excess output VAT is paid over to Customs and Excise. Where there is an excess of input VAT, tax may be reclaimed.

<b>Some input VAT cannot be reclaimed </b>
Purchases of motor cars, except cars bought wholly for business.
· Business entertainment expenses.
Most businesses have to account for VAT at the date that the invoice for the supply is raised. However, traders can claim VAT bad debt relief on debts more than six months old that have been written off.
Traders with a turnover of not more than £660,000 may account for VAT on a cash basis rather than an invoice basis, thereby obtaining automatic relief for any bad debts.

<b>Exempt supplies</b>

Certain supplies are exempt from VAT. Output VAT is not charged on such supplies and, in principle, input VAT attributable to such supplies cannot be reclaimed (or the claim is restricted).
Relatively small businesses may be able to reclaim all their input VAT - even for their exempt supplies. The input VAT attributable to their exempt supplies must not exceed £7,500 a year and must be no more than half the VAT on all their purchases.
· Exempt supplies include insurance, finance, health, education, and burial and cremation services.
· In general, leases and sales of non-domestic land and buildings, other than newly built ones, are exempt, unless the option to tax has been exercised. A taxable person may choose to charge output VAT on supplies of existing buildings and land (including rents) that are not used for residential or charitable purposes.
· Sales of new buildings are standard-rated unless they are used for residential or charitable purposes.

<b>Zero-rated supplies</b>

If a business makes zero-rated supplies, it does not charge VAT on supplies but can reclaim input VAT.
Zero-rated supplies include
· Most food and some drinks - but not catering, restaurant meals or hot take-away food.
· Domestic supplies of water and sewerage.
· Books and most other publications.
· Sales of new residential buildings and buildings for use by charities.
· Supplies of services by contractors when constructing new residential buildings or buildings for charities.
· Alterations to some buildings where listed building consent is needed.
· Public transport of passengers.
· Drugs, medicines and aids for the disabled.
· Clothing and footwear for children.
· Exports of goods and certain services to non-EU countries.
Reduced rate supplies

Some supplies are charged at a <b>rate of 5%</b>. They include
· Domestic power and fuel and certain energy saving materials for residential or charitable use.
· The grant funded installation of heating equipment and the connection of a mains gas supply in the sole or main residence of an individual aged 60 or more or in receipt of social security benefits.
· Woman's sanitary protection products.
· Children's car seats.
· Cycle helmets.
· Conversions of residential property into a different number of dwellings, certain conversions into care homes or multiple occupancy dwellings, and certain renovations or alterations of property that has not been lived in for three years.

<b>EU single market</b>

Where sales are made to businesses that are registered in other EU countries, the supplier need not charge VAT.
· The customer's VAT number must be shown on the sales invoice.
· The customer is then responsible for accounting for output VAT on the goods on its own VAT return, but may claim input VAT if the goods are for use in making taxable supplies.
· However, output VAT must be charged on sales to private individuals in other EU states. Where such sales exceed that state's registration threshold, the trader must register for VAT in that state.

<b>Collection of VAT</b>
Registered traders normally have to submit VAT returns, and pay any VAT due, every three months.
· Traders who regularly reclaim VAT from Customs and Excise may apply to submit monthly returns.
· Some large companies have to pay monthly.
· Tax on imports from outside the EU has to be paid at the time of importation, unless special arrangements are set up.
· Traders with a turnover of £660,000 a year or less can complete annual returns only, making nine monthly VAT payments on account, with a final payment due along with the year-end return.
· Very small businesses can simplify their accounting by applying to pay VAT at a flat rate on total turnover without deducting input tax. The business must have taxable turnover (including exempt supplies) up to £150,000 and total turnover of not more than £187,500. The rate is determined by trade sector.

· <b>Penalties</b> are charged for late or incorrect VAT returns.
· A default surcharge of between 2% and 15% of the VAT payable is charged where returns are late.
· A penalty of 15% is charged for serious or persistent misdeclarations.
· A penalty of between 5% and 15% is charged where a person is late in registering for VAT.
· Interest can also be charged on VAT paid late.


While the EU mandates certain guidelines for the VAT, the implementation and administration of VAT remains a matter of national law in each of the fifteen Member States. The EU has obtained from the Member States’ tax authorities and assembled in one publication, a range of basic information on the application of VAT arrangements in each of the EU countries. It is in this publication that one can find the contact information for each of the countries’ VAT offices. The publication offers detailed "how-to" information for traders.

If I could... Then I would... Turn back time!!
02-19-2005, 09:01 PM,
I thought that Junaid was asking about Pakistan and not EU. Is it right Mr Desert Sleet.
Junaid VAt is same as sales tax. Infact VAT in pakistan is called sales tax. All importers pay it on port. Exporters are exempt from it. Since June 2004 importers also pay value addition on port.

Aamer Sikandar
02-23-2005, 07:43 PM,
can someone tell me about INPUT/OUTPUT TAX REGISTERs
are they simply purachse/sales registers with tax calculations ??

02-23-2005, 07:46 PM,
i just want to know about INPUT/OUPUT TAX REGISTERS.
Are they purchase/sales registers with tax calculations ?

help needed
02-23-2005, 08:01 PM,
Good book keeping is a vital part of good overall business management. It’s always better to spend those few extra minutes each day writing things up and filing then properly, rather than sorting out piles of documents at once. Always check documents you receive, for example, you must have a “VAT invoice” to claim back VAT – a “statement” is not a proper invoice. Always enter cash receipts in your books before using the cash to make purchases

If I could... Then I would... Turn back time!!

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