A major function of management involving the systematic bringing together of organisational resources such as: people, facilities, equipment and stock to achieve the goals of the organisation. Sometimes called coordinating.


A sub-goal, the achievement of which is necessary for the accomplishment of a goal. Specific targets. Contrast with goal.

Outlay Cost

Cost represented by an expenditure of cash or transfer of property generally, any recorded cost, contrasting with imputed cost and opportunity cost.


The costs associated with providing and maintaining the manufacturing or working environment. For example: renting the building, heating and lighting the work area, supervision costs and maintenance of the facilities. Includes indirect labour and indirect material.

Owner’s Equity

The owner’s investment in an organisation, representing the owner’s interest in assets and control over the organisation. Contrast with asset and liability.


The process of growth within a business characterised by rapidly increasing sales that result in such demands on inventory and receivables that the organisation moves into financial difficulties. The fundamental cause of this condition is insufficient capital investment to sustain the high level of growth.

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