Z

Zero sum game

A game in which the sum of the rewards to the players total to zero. i.e. if there are two players. one player´s gain is the other player´s loss.

Zero base budgeting

An approach to the formulation of budgets in which managers have to justify their activities as though those activities were being started for the first time. Analysis and justification is thus shifted away from increments to existing activities to existing activities and towards a systematic consideration of how objectives should be accomplished. This. it is claimed. is the advantage of ZBB over Incremental Budgets. Such an approach is more useful in the area of discretionary costs than engineered costs. i.e.. it is more applicable to non-manufacturing organizations.